The disinfectant potential of chlorine-ammonia compounds or chloramines was identified in the early 1900s. The potential use of chloramines was considered after observing that disinfection by chlorine occurred in two distinct phases. During the initial phase, chlorine reducing compounds (i.e., demand) cause the rapid disappearance of free available chlorine. However, when ammonia was present bactericidal action was observed to continue [even though free chlorine residual was dissipated]. The subsequent disinfection phase occurs by the action of the inorganic chloramines.October 1995, (edited May 1996)
WHO Guideline for Drinking Water Quality
Disinfection and Disinfection By-Products
The recommended maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) for chloramines in drinking water is 3.0 mg/L (3000 £gg/L). This MAC is based on a risk evaluation for monochloramine only, as monochloramine is usually the predominant chloramine and as information on dichloramine and trichloramine toxicity is insufficient to establish guidelines for these two compounds.
FINAL DRAFT, ECAO-CIN-D002, March, 1994
DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES
HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA DIVISION
OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
OFFICE OF WATER
Studies relevant to the toxicokinetics of inorganic chloramines are severely limited. However, studies done with various chlorinated amino compounds (including organic chloramines) give information on the pharmacokinetics of chloramines.
The Health Effects of Chloramine in Potable Water Supplies